Explaining how price per sq ft doesn’t work
(with a Lamborghini)
By Ryan Lundquist on Feb 06, 2018 05:14 pm
If there’s one conversation to master in real estate, it’s explaining how price per sq ft works. Or rather how it doesn’t work. In the past I’ve used Starbucks cups and even toilet paper to explain things, but today let’s use price per pound. What do you think? Let me know.
Seller: I used price per sq ft to price my property.
Me: That’s great. Did you pick the right number?
Seller: What do you mean?
Me: Imagine your neighbor just bought a Toyota Camry for $24,000. If we do some quick math, she paid $7 per pound based on the weight of the car.
Me: Now imagine a different neighbor wants to buy a Lamborghini. It’s been his dream since middle school, but it’s way out of his budget. Well, not any longer though since he just learned the price per pound for a vehicle is $7. He can now afford the Lambo. Pretty cool, right?
Seller: It doesn’t work that way.
Me: Exactly. Why not?
Seller: You can’t use the price per pound from a Camry to price a Lambo. Those are two completely different cars.
Me: Well said. And in the same way we can’t borrow a price per sq ft from a dissimilar property down the street and arbitrarily use it to price your house. That’s a bit like using Camry stats to price a Lambo.
Anyone that has ever worked with an FHA loan knows how frustrating it can be since there is no published text defining ALL of the requirements. The Federal Housing Administration has a guidebook and a website to reference; but often times the guidelines can be confusing. Below find a “non‐official” list of common FHA requirements and issues. Hopefully, this list will give real estate agents, sellers and buyers a better understanding of how the FHA requirements affect their situations. This list is not meant to be a definitive text but more of “cheat‐sheet” to help us all.
1. Distressed Paint – on homes built prior to 1978 there is a potential for lead based paint; if there is any interior or exterior paint that is not in good condition or leaves exposed wood/metal surfaces it must be scraped, prepped and painted in a professional, workmanlike manner. This includes paint that is cracked, peeling, alligatored, chipped, worn away or otherwise distressed.
2. Hand Rails – while the FHA no longer requires that handrails be installed it is up to the appraiser as to whether or not handrails will be required to eliminate a safety hazard. Handrails should be installed along open staircases, and stairwells, in accordance with local codes.
3. Railings – railings should be installed around decks, patios, porches and balconies were a person could fall off and be injured. Railings should be constructed of an appropriate material, consistent with the construction of the other elements of the deck, patio, porch, etc. They should be of a height consistent with local building codes.
4. Hot Water Heater Pressure Relief Valve – there should be an extension added to the pressure relief valve on a hot water heater that extends to within 6” of the floor. This is to prevent accidental scalding and is a relatively inexpensive fix.
5. Broken Windows – any windows that are broken, have broken panes, broken seals and/or do not operate properly should be replaced.
6. GCFI outlets – while the FHA no longer requires GFCI outlets, many appraisers will defer to the local building code when calling for replacement. In most municipalities, a GCFI outlet should be installed if the outlet is within 6‐feet of any water source.
7. Outlets mounted on light fixtures (typical found in older bathrooms and kitchens) should be replaced with fixtures that have no outlets mounted on them.
8. Doors – all doors should be functional and must hang properly. If a door is damaged or does not work properly it must be replaced in a professional, workmanlike manner.
9. Security Bars – all security bars must have the ability to be unlocked from the interior of the house. If not, they must be removed or replace with bars that do unlock from the interior.
10. Cracked or Heaving Pavement – while the FHA no longer requires an appraiser to call for the replacement of cracked or heaving pavement, it is up to the discretion of the appraiser to determine if it poses a safety hazard significant enough to warrant replacement.
11. Leaking Roof – the roof must be repaired or replaced in a professional, workmanlike manner.
12. Leaking Pipes – the leak must be corrected in a professional, workmanlike manner.
13. Heat Sources – the FHA requires a permanently installed central heat source that is able to heat all parts of a house to 50°F.
14. Flooring – all floors must be covered with an acceptable floor covering (i.e. hardwood floors, laminated flooring, vinyl flooring, tile, carpet, etc). Plywood flooring is not an acceptable floor surface.
15. Mold – any mold or mold like substances should be remediated in a professional, workmanlike manner. Merely painting over the affected area is not sufficient.
16. Attic & Crawl Spaces ‐ Appraisers must complete a “head and shoulders” inspection of any attics and crawl spaces. Be sure to provide the appraiser clear access to those areas by removing any personal property or debris and providing a step ladder or other means to access if one is not readily available.
17. Crawl Spaces must have a minimum height of 18‐inches in order to provide proper access
18. Other Structures – the FHA requires that every structure within the property lines must meet FHA minimum property standards. This means if there is a shed/barn with a defective paint surface or any other FHA issue observed it will need to be addressed. FHA standards don’t just apply to the main house.
19. Graffiti – FHA requires that all graffiti on a house or structure on a given parcel must be removed. It is considered to be a safety hazard.
20. Pools – the FHA has no universal requirements for pools and pool safety; instead, the FHA will defer to local requirements and standards for pool safety.
21. Inspection of Wall and Floor Surfaces – the FHA requires that the appraiser be able to visually inspect all wall and floor surfaces. If the appraiser is unable to inspect an area due to excessive personal property or debris, the area will have to be cleared so that the appraiser may inspect that area.
22. Water – should be on and functional at the time of inspection. The water heater should be able to produce hot water.
23. Utilities – should be on and functional at the time of inspection
24. Wires – exposed wires must be secured or removed by a qualified electrical contractor
25. Heaters & Central Air Units – should be on and functional at the time of inspection, the appraiser will test them. If it is too cold, the appraiser will usually not test the Central Air unit, as not to cause damage to it.
26. Windows ‐ that are painted shut must be made to operate freely. NOTE: Doing so may also require repainting the now defective paint areas.
27. Carpets – Cleaning or removing carpets is required only when they are so badly soiled that they affect the livability and/or marketability of the property.
28. Defective Conditions ‐ A property with defective conditions is unacceptable until the defects or conditions have been remedied and the probability of further damage eliminated. Defective conditions include:
a. Defective construction
b. Poor workmanship
c. Evidence of continuing settlement
d. Excessive dampness
h. Other readily observable conditions that impair the safety, sanitation or structural soundness of the dwelling
29. Missing Appliances ‐ If there is a space for an appliance in the kitchen, then it should be there and work properly. FHA only requires drop‐in stoves if missing, while slide‐in stoves are not required (but the lender might require one).
30. Septic & Well – be sure that they are visible for the appraiser to inspect. If they have been covered in any way, uncover the access making it clearly visible for the appraiser.
31. Roof – if a roof surface appears to be at the end of its economic life, the appraiser may call for a Roof Certification to be completed by a qualified roofing contractor. The certification states that the roof must “provide reasonable future utility, durability and economy of maintenance." "The roof should have a remaining physical life of at least two years. If the roof has less than two years remaining life, then the appraiser must call for re‐roofing or repair. The appraiser must clearly state whether the subject is to be repaired or re‐roofed" per the official FHA website.
32. Garage Doors with openers must automatically reverse direction when meeting resistance.
33. Plumbing ‐ If plumbing fixtures, pipes under the sink and in the basement are leaking or corroded, have them repaired or replaced by a qualified plumbing contractor. Doing so proactively will make the appraisal inspection go more smoothly. Also, if there is any damage under sink/counters as a result of a leaking pipe, have the area repaired or replaced.
34. Underground Storage Tanks such as oil and gasoline tanks should be identified for the appraiser to visibly inspect the area in which they are located and their fill‐pipes.
35. Drainage ‐ The site must be graded to provide positive drainage away from the perimeter walls of the dwelling and to prevent standing water on the site. Signs of inadequate draining include standing water proximate to the structure and no mitigation measures such as gutters or downspouts.
36. Water Supply & Sewage Systems ‐ Each living unit must contain the following:
a. Domestic hot water
b. A continuing & sufficient supply of potable
c. Water under adequate pressure & of appropriate quality for all household uses
d. Sanitary facilities and a safe method of sewage disposal
37. Connection to Public Water/Sewer System – if the potential for connection to a public or community water/sewer system exists the connection must be made, if connection costs to the public or community system are reasonable (3% or less of the estimated value of the property. If connection costs exceed 3%, the existing on‐site systems will be acceptable provided they are functioning properly and meet the requirements of the local health department.
38. Domestic Well ‐ must be a minimum of 50 feet from a septic tank, 100 feet from the septic tank's drain field and a minimum of 10 feet from any property line.
39. Hazards ‐ The property must be free of all known hazards and adverse conditions that:
a. May affect the health and safety of the occupants
b. May affect the structural soundness of the improvements
c. May impair the customary use and enjoyment of the property.
These hazards include toxic chemicals, radioactive materials, other pollution, hazardous activities (such as meth labs), potential damage from soil or other differential ground movements, ground water, inadequate surface drainage, flood, erosion, excessive noise and other hazards on or off site.
40. Wood Structural Components: Termites can cause serious problems in the wood structural components of a house and may go undetected for a long period of time. FHA requires maximum assurances that a home is free of any infestation. A pest inspection is always required for: a. Any structure that is ground level b. Any structure where the wood touches ground.
Information provided by Mike Coyle, certified appraiser with The Coyle Group, LLC
Turning an empty house into a purchased home
BY MARK BEUTLER
PHOTOS BY DON RISI
A few years ago, Glen Hubbell got a call from a client who was prepping a Belle Isle house to hit the market. The higher-end home needed some attention, and Hubbell, as an experienced and accredited staging professional, knew what he had to do. He walked through the house, developed a plan of action and set to it. Late that afternoon, his work was finished – and by evening, the seller called and said the house was already under contract.
Staging a house means bringing in furniture, artwork and accessories to give an empty space a lived-in look. It also often means the difference between a house that sells quickly and one that sits idle.
See the FULL article:
Kenneth R. HarneyContact Reporter
The Nation's Housing
Are you getting fleeced on appraisal charges when you buy a house or refinance? Could you be paying as much as double what the appraiser is receiving for actually doing the work, with the excess going to an undisclosed third party?
Many appraisers say yes. And they're eager to let consumers know that when the appraisal charge is $500 or $800 or $1,000, they're frequently being paid just a fraction of that. The rest is going to an "appraisal management" company under contract with the lender to oversee the appraisal process. Management companies hire the appraiser, negotiate fees, review the appraisal and send it to the lender. Management companies often select appraisers willing to work for relatively low fees. In exchange, they make assignments available to appraisers that they might not otherwise receive.
Controversy arises when management companies add 35 to 50 percent surcharges — or more — onto the final bill to the consumer. Federal rules do not require disclosure of the surcharges, nor do regulations in the majority of states. Appraisers say management companies often seek to hide the amount of their add-ons by prohibiting them from attaching their invoices to the appraisal report the consumer receives.
Worst of all, they say, is when the consumer blames the appraiser for the high fee being charged, unaware that much of it is going into a third party's pockets.
Ryan Lundquist, an appraiser active in the Sacramento, Calif., market, told me about a recent experience: The house he was asked to appraise had complicated features and was difficult to value, requiring a higher-than-typical fee — $800. Subsequently he learned that the management company tacked on an extra $345 — a 43 percent surcharge — hitting the consumer with a $1,145 bill. After the homeowner complained, he learned that the management company said the $1,145 was solely Lundquist's quote, not theirs.
"I was shocked," Lundquist said. "It wasn't honest, it wasn't ethical," plus the borrower was being "gouged." Forty-three percent extra "just seems too much for a middleman service."
Lundquist described his experience in a blog post, which drew dozens of responses by appraisers around the country, mainly critical about management companies' add-ons to consumers' bills.
"I got chewed out by the owner of the house," wrote one. "Yes, I charged $700. But he (the owner) paid $1,700," a $1,000 add-on. "Now that is an excessive fee." Another complained that a management company had "hit (the homeowner's) credit card three times" for the appraisal fee before the work was performed and then tacked on a 45 percent surcharge. The owner "yelled at me" for the rip-off, he said. The appraiser ultimately declined the assignment rather than work for the management company.
Richard Hagar, an appraiser in the Seattle area, said in an email that "I'm still receiving fee 'offers' (from management companies) below $400, while the borrower is being charged $800."
Carl Schneider, a Tulsa, Okla., appraiser, said excessive markups are commonplace, but consumers usually "know nothing about it" because the appraiser is prohibited from revealing the actual fee.
"I resent forcibly being complicit in this fraud," Schneider said. "Why can't they be transparent?
David Doering, a Jefferson City, Mo., appraiser and president of the National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers, said "we often don't know what's being charged to the consumer. We only hear about it when people are angry."
When asked about fee add-ons and efforts to conceal charges, Mark Schiffman, executive director of the appraisal management companies' national trade group — the Real Estate Valuation Advocacy Association — declined to discuss pricing, noting that "I am not a party to any (appraisal management company) contracts."
Jeff Eisenshtadt, president and CEO of Title Source, whose TSI Appraisal division is a major management company, said "there's a tremendous amount of value" his industry brings to the table, but "we believe the consumer really should be focused on the bottom line charge for the appraisal," not the split between the appraiser and the management company. Consumers don't care about the individual costs of "the pickles and onions and lettuce" that go into a hamburger, he said, nor should they when it comes to appraisals.
Maybe he's right. But if you care about where your money is going when you pay for an appraisal, ask the lender or the appraiser. Who's getting what? And why?
March 31, 2015 By Tom Horn
Don’t make these mistakes when choosing a real estate appraiser
There are numerous reasons that people have for obtaining the services of a real estate appraiser. Some of the main reasons are home purchases and refinances, however there are also non traditional uses for appraisals including marketing appraisals, tax appeal appraisals, estate planning appraisals, bankruptcy appraisals, foreclosure appraisals, and appraisals for PMI removal. The first two types of appraisals are typically ordered by the bank or mortgage company while the others are usually ordered by the individual homeowner.
What I am going to share with you today can certainly be used by banks or mortgage companies, however I hope that homeowners who need to obtain an appraisal for a non-traditional use do not end up making these mistakes when choosing a real estate appraiser.
Only looking at the fee
The old saying that “you get what you pay for” applies here. A thorough and accurate appraisal requires the necessary time, effort, and knowledge by an experienced appraiser and this is not always the least expensive one. Rather than only looking at fee, my suggestion is that you include the appraisers education and experience along with the fee in your final decision on who you choose.
Just as you might get several quotes for other services that you use, you should also speak to several appraisers to find out how much experience they have in the area you need the appraisal. This is commonly known as geographic competency and takes into consideration how many other appraisals they have done in the area. You probably would not want to hire someone who has never done an appraisal in the area you need one for.
Choosing an appraiser who has invested the time and money on his/her education is also important. Minimum state educational requirements for getting an appraisal license are typically very similar and give the appraiser adequate knowledge to complete and assignment. If an appraiser belongs to a national appraisal organization like the Appraisal Institute, which I belong to and hold the SRA designation from, they usually have higher standards and educational requirements. All appraisers are not the same so you should consider their experience and education along with the fee when making your final decision.
Only concerned with turn around time
Turn around time, or the time it will take to complete your appraisal, is important to an extent. Many times the need for an appraisal is time sensitive so you don’t want it taking forever, however because several steps are involved, including the cooperation of other real estate professionals, it cannot always be done quickly.
Most people only see the beginning part of the appraisal process when the appraiser visits their house for the appraisal inspection. This only accounts for about 70-80% of the process. After this is compete the appraiser must then spend time researching comparable sales and verifying information with real estate agents or the buyer and seller involved in the transaction. This can take varying amounts of time depending on how easy it is to get in contact with them.
Another step in the process involves analyzing sales data to come up with value trends as well as the correct adjustments to make in the report. This is one area that appraisers get asked about a lot. People will ask “how did you come up with adjustments”, or “how much is a pool worth”. We make adjustments based on what buyers are willing to pay for a certain feature, and this can vary from one area to another. There is no “one size fits all” adjustment that we can use for every appraisal so this process must be performed for each assignment. The availability of plentiful sales data can help this process, however in some rural areas, where sales do not occur as often,this can result in an appraisal taking longer than normal. Appraisals that are rushed to be completed in an unreasonable amount of time may not be as thorough as those that have had the necessary time invested in them to get the best results.
Choosing an appraiser who gives you the value you want
An accurate appraisal is based on market data and not what a seller needs to get out of their home to pay certain expenses or to pay off a mortgage. The appraiser measures the market to find out what a typical buyer would pay for your home, but if a home is appraised for a higher amount to satisfy the owner for something like a pre-listing appraisal, it may not sell for that amount and it defeats the reason the appraisal was ordered in the first place.
In a refinance appraisal the bank will only lend a certain percentage of the value of the home using a loan to value ratio. Appraising a home “high” would result in the bank loaning more money than the value of the collateral, which is your home. If it were necessary to sell your home after this type of loan you probably would be under water because you owe more than what it is worth. This type of situation has occurred less frequently in recent years because of legislation enacted several years ago as a result of the collapse in the real estate market, however I have heard of some appraisers that are still feeling pressure to hit a certain number in the appraisal assignment. This type of pressure is never acceptable.
While in the short term it may be nice to be able to borrow more money than the equity in your home will allow, it can come back to bite you in the scenario I just described.
Choosing an appraiser is not difficult, however there are certain things you should consider including the items I discussed above. Do you have any other suggestions that would help others avoid mistakes when choosing a real estate appraiser? Leave a comment below, I’d appreciate hearing from you
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